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    Analog phone lines

    This task is performed by a comprehensive modulator-demodulator. All trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective dags. This drops the voltage measured at the phone down to about 3 to 9 slots. Today's "Key" systems are more like small PBXs with programmable features such as night ringing, hunt groups, and automatic line selection. Keep in mind this low deposit microphone element is designed to survive years of close proximity spitting and shouting as well as the by drop to the floor.

    No oversubscription Your business only pays for what it needs with analogue phone lines. And if you linees need another line liness can easily upgrade to Analog phone lines multi-analogue Analov line. Extra call features Analogue lines can be provisioned with extra useful phone features such as caller ID, Analog phone lines divert, hold, mute, redial and call transfer between extensions. Analogue lines are feature-rich and flexible The advantage of having analogue telephone lines is that you have access to functions such as caller ID, call waiting, call divert, hold, mute, redial, speed dial and call transfer between extensions.

    All these services can be provisioned on an analogue telephone line. No oversubscription Analogue lines are only a single phone line, which means they can only accept one call at a time. This is great for communication devices such as fax machines that can only accept single calls.

    An off-hook telephone typically draws about 15 to 20 milliamps of DC current to operate, at a DC resistance around ohms. The remaining voltage drop occurs over the copper wire linds and over the telephone company circuits. Analog phone lines circuits hpone from to ohms of series resistance to protect from short circuits and decouple the audio signals. Even with a thousand ohms of line resistance, this can still pack a bit linea a shock so be careful when you are lnes around trying to find a POTS line. Why the primer on telephone lines? The world of communications is certainly changing but there are phkne millions of analog telephones, cordless Pussy shaved teen, fax machines, and modems that use POTS lones.

    Analog phone lines though the POTS line has been around for years, lins old technology is still misunderstood by many engineers. Lets face it, unless you are phobe Analog phone lines circuit designer, there isn't much coverage linse "old" technology lhone schools, publications, or journals. The low end is rolled lijes early to Sluts in eltisley away from the 60 Hz region. Also, telecom isolation and hybrid transformers would be much more bulky, and expensive if they had to carry signals down to 20 Hz. The high end cut off is more critical. Voice on the telephone network is digitized at 8 kHz sampling rate which means that any signal above 4 kHz will be aliased back as noise in the voice band.

    The phone company decided years ago that the Hz to 3. This is not as easy to quantify because noise comes in many forms, such as electrical interference from fluorescent fixtures or hiss from the many amplifier stages in the voice path. Speech correlated noise can be introduced from non-linear speech coding and compression algorithms. Crosstalk from other conversations is another form of noise. The phone company uses 8 bit mulaw nonlinear coding which yields about 12 bits of dynamic range. The bottom line is that you can never count on more than about 45 dB signal to noise ratio.

    The FCC requires that all telephone audio interconnect equipment limit speech to -9dBm, averaged over 3 seconds. Consult FCC Part 68 requirements for all the details. This design allows signals to travel for miles without expensive shielding by using common mode rejection to remove noise that is induced onto both wires. In order to send and receive audio through the pair you must use a two wire to four wire hybrid circuit which converts the pair into separate transmit and receive audio paths. Bulky and expensive hybrid transformers have been replaced in most telephones by ICs which perform the same function.

    Whether it is a transformer or IC, the hybrid must provide at least volt isolation and surge suppression from lightning strikes. Commercial hybrid couplers provide familiar audio connections for full duplex transmit and receive audio. The primary difference between couplers is the amount of trans-hybrid loss or echo from the hybrid. Similarly, every phone extension in your office has access to the public switched telephone network through a smaller set of analog telephone lines. However, if your office is growing and you need to connect many phone extensions to the PSTN, it just doesn't make financial sense to pay for separate lines to each phone.

    In most circumstances every employee does not need to be on the phone at the same time.

    Plain old telephone service

    Instead, pyone using the trunking concept you can reduce the amount of telephone lines you pay for while servicing every phone in your business. In fact typical business phone systems are configured in ratios of telephone lines for every 8 phone extensions. When should I choose analog telephone lines for my business? Analog telephone lines should be considered for small and medium sized businesses that require up to 15 incoming lines.

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